Tuesday, December 13, 2005

 
Nuclear Testing(Synthesis Exam)


Several years ago, there were several nuclear tests in India and Pakistan. Two countries were blamed for that testing from many countries. That testing affected several problems; I think that the most important problem is radioactive contamination for humans, animals, soil, air, and the environments. If the United States resumed nuclear testing, I think it will cause many serious problems for in the United States, and also other countries will do the nuclear testing after America did.

There are some victims who injured with nuclear test. According to Hillary Gubler (2004), “St. George resident Bill Endsley, who grew up in Cedar City and endured hundreds of nuclear blasts, said the radiation from the testing gave him skin cancers and melanomas.” He is one of the victims from nuclear test that was done in the past. I think that there were many victims in Arizona, Nevada, and Utah from nuclear blasts. But in Salt Lake Tribune (2004), President Bush said that nuclear tests were safe. I can’t understand why he could say such words. The truth is totally different. Norman Soloman (2001) said, “People in affected areas suffered extraordinarily high rates of cancer and thyroid ills.” If the American government begins to do this, they must pay attention to radioactive contamination. If they can’t perfectly prevent this, they must not do it.

Probably, America can prevent radioactive contamination by progressed technologies. But there is a treaty of CTBT; this treaty has banned the ratifying countries from doing nuclear testing. If America breaks the treaty, many countries will strongly blame America. And according to Tony Batt (2002), a resumption of nuclear tests in America will cause many countries to start to do the nuclear testing. It is not good currently for the world. We must prevent this before being like this.

America has a large influence all around the world. That is why I think that America has to act carefully when doing nuclear testing.

 
Beaches pollution in New York(Argument Essay)


I was interested in New York area beaches because I didn’t know that there are a lot of beaches in New York; my image of New York was only Manhattan. New York City has many beaches but also has problems. For example, littering garbage, and human and animal feces in the streets, and parks. And then, if it rains, they were washed down to beaches and also sewer pipes were overflowed. It makes the water have a high level of enterococcus, and it causes several illnesses for humans from swimming at the beaches; the most common illness is gastroenteritis, an irritation and inflammation of the digestive tract (Benanti, 2005, par. 6). But there is another opinion; according to Dina Acks Benanti (2005), “The Environmental Protection Agency now states there is not a strong statistical relationship between the amount of fecal coliform and the likelihood of people getting sick.” In any case, polluting water causes bad effects; we can’t swim in the ocean, and we have to clean the beaches. States News Service (2005, par. 3) said that, “More than a decade ago, EPA and New York City started a ‘Clean Streets=Clean Beaches’ campaign.” It draws our attention to the connection between rain washing down litter, which is on the streets, and litter going to the beaches. According to States News Service (2005, par. 6), “We must all take responsibility for our actions and acknowledge that the candy wrapper carelessly discarded in the street quite often travels all the way to our shores and mars the beauty of our beaches and waterways.” Most New Yorkers don’t know of the link, so it is important to let people realize it through public education to make progress.

Littering causing beaches pollution is a serious problem in New York, and three things should be done about it.

New York City should make laws to prevent beaches from being polluted by garbage, and human and animal feces. If laws were made they could protect beaches and oceans more easily than now. Probably, there are some people who don’t follow the laws, but laws should force them to pay a fine. I think this way is the most valuable way to protect beaches from litter.

To make a lot of tanks would cost much money and time. But if tanks were made, they could control overflow and excess water easily. It is impossible to make many tanks at same time, so the government should make two or three tanks as fast as the government could.

We need to notice what is going on in the earth, whether laws are made or tanks are made. It will make no meaning that people don’t have any knowledge or awareness about this problem. In the newspaper, the government should put the advertisement that says about polluted beaches enforce us not to swim in beaches and oceans, protect our beaches and oceans, and keep clean beaches. In schools, teachers ought to teach this situation for students, and recognize deeply.


Reference:

Benanti, D. (2005, Sep. 8). Testing the quality of beaches; Politicians and health officials wrangle over criteria needed to measure bacteria for safe ocean swimming. Newsday. Retrieved October 24, 2005, from Lexis-Nexis.

States News Service. (2005, Jul. 18). Federal and city officials pitch in to fight litter.Retrieved October 31, 2005, from Lexis-Nexis.

Thursday, December 08, 2005

 
Dirty Beach

I was interested in New York area beaches because I didn't know that there are a lot of beaches in New York; my image of New York was only Manhattan. New York City has many beaches but also has problems. For example, littering garbage, and human and animal feces in the streets, and parks. And then, if it rains, they were washed down to beaches and also sewer pipes were overflowed. It makes the water have a high level of enterococcus, and it causes several illnesses for humans from swimming at the beaches; the most common illness is gastroenteritis, an irritation and inflammation of the digestive tract (Benanti, 2005, par. 6). But there is another opinion; according to Dina Acks Benanti (2005), "The Environmental Protection Agency now states there is not a strong statistical relationship between the amount of fecal coliform and the likelihood of people getting sick." In any case, polluting water causes bad effects; we can’t swim in the ocean, and we have to clean the beaches. States News Service (2005, par. 3) said that, "More than a decade ago, EPA and New York City started a 'Clean Streets=Clean Beaches' campaign." It draws our attention to the connection between rain washing down litter, which is on the streets, and litter going to the beaches. According to States News Service (2005, par. 6), "We must all take responsibility for our actions and acknowledge that the candy wrapper carelessly discarded in the street quite often travels all the way to our shores and mars the beauty of our beaches and waterways." Most New Yorkers don't know of the link, so it is important to let people realize it through public education to make progress. We need to clean up our precious ocean.

Throwing garbage and human and animal feces in the street causing beach pollution is a serious problem in New York, and three things should be done about this problem.

New York City should make laws to prevent beaches from being polluted by garbage, and human and animal feces. If laws were made they could protect beaches and oceans more easily than now. Laws are good way to protect from litter.

Littering is serious problem, and it is not only for in New York City. In Hong Kong beaches, there is the same problem, that the beaches are polluted with trashes. But there is a difference between New York City and Hong Kong. According to one article (Associated Press, 2005), in Hong Kong City, major parts of trashes come from mainland China, such as plastic bags, grocery package and also a dead pig. I think this situation is such an unpleasant thing for Hong Kong City that they don’t like to clean up the beaches and the ocean. But even if most of trash comes from the mainland, they need to clean up. If they didn’t collect the garbage, Hong Kong City will be damaged by pollution, not mainland China. In Associated Press (2005, par. 7), "Kaman Chong, a spokeswoman for Hong Kong's leisure and cultural services department, said 300 bags of trash have been collected each day this month at the popular tourist beach Repulse Bay-located on the south of Hong Kong Island." I think this is unfair to Hong Kong City, so they also need some laws for this.

But there are some obstructions, which prevent laws from becoming effective. One of them is time to make laws. It takes so much time to make laws, and also we need to wait a lot of time for them to become effective. First, the New York government has to discuss the details of laws, such as what kinds of behaviors will be regarded as the illegal acts or how to enforce people not to throw garbage. I think this process probably takes a lot of time to organize the government’s ideas.

After finishing this process, we will encounter another obstruction, which will also take a lot of time. It is waiting for the laws come into force. If the government made some laws, they can’t be enforced as soon as they are made. I think there is a certain reason, but I don’t know why we need to wait a long time for them to become effective.

Finally, if the laws could be enforced, probably, there are some people who wouldn’t follow the laws. The laws should force them to pay a fine. Paying a fine because of littering is a kind of shameful thing. That is why I think this way is the most valuable way to prevent littering in the streets, the parks, and the beaches.

But there is still another problem. It is how to manage some lawbreakers. It is too difficult to find and identify lawbreakers. If we can’t find them, there is no meaning of these laws. We must prevent this situation before it happens. I think that beginning is very important; so many police officers should walk around to find the lawbreakers, while the law is on its first several weeks. After this, maybe the government can put awareness into people’s minds about these laws. Not only of the beginning, the government needs to pay attention to prevent littering in the streets, the parks, and the beaches.

We need to prevent the overflow from sewer pipes, when it rains. To make a lot of treatment plants, tanks, and sewer pipes that have a system for capturing waste can be control the overflow and excess water easily. But it costs much money and time to make a lot of treatment plants, tanks, and sewer pipes.

According to Daniel Hendrick (2005), “Network … captures. This ‘combined’ system was state-of-the-art in the 19th century, but has one major design flaw: It can easily be overwhelmed when it rains.” It is not good for it to be overflow, so human and animal sewage can easily to appear in the streets, the parks, and the beaches. And then, The New York City Department of Environmental Protection is trying to solve this problem. The department separates some storm and sewer, and changes pipes, so the system now can collect 72 percent of the flow; in 1989, they could only handle 18 percent. (Hendrick, 2005). This information surprised me that there is a system in the pipes for overflow. I thought depending only on tanks was not a good way to prevent overflow.

And also New York City needs to improve the treatment plant system to manage the city wastewater and sewage. A representative of LaBella Associates and Malcolm Pirnie is quoted as saying (Kellogg, 2005, par. 2), “We recommended a two-phase wastewater treatment plant enlargement that will cost about $10.3 million. It would increase the city wastewater treatment plant’s peak capacity from 7 million gallons per day to 15 million gallons per day.” To make this treatment plant costs a lot of money, but New York City has a large number of people so they can share the cost for building this. If there are over 15 million people in New York City, it will cost less than $1 per person to make one treatment plant. It is needless to say that only one plant is not enough to manage wastewater. New Yorkers should pay more money for the government to build the plants.

Overflow retention system and pump station are directly related with overflow. If there are many of those, we don't have to worry about overflow. But the building cost of overflow retention system and pump station are very expensive. The Buffalo News (2005) says, "An overflow retention system and pump station to store excess flows for later treatment would cost about $26.8 million". It is impossible to make many tanks at the same time, but New York City should make three or four overflow retention systems as fast as the government can. After making the systems, next, start to build them one by one until they make 10 systems.

Whether the laws and overflow systems are made, we need to notice what is going on in the New York City beaches. It will have no meaning to make the laws and overflow systems if people don’t have any knowledge or awareness about this problem. New Yorkers should have studied, but I think there were not many opportunities to learn about how does littering causes the beaches pollution and what will happen in polluted beaches.

In schools, teachers ought to teach this situation for students, and they should recognize deeply about polluted beaches. According to States News Service (2005), if we want to make progress, public education is an important factor. So we can't ignore public education. Before we start teaching about beach pollution, teachers must study hard about this problem, because if teachers don't know about this very much, they can only teach about the surface of this problem and can't answer the questions from students. It is not good for students; they will think that we don't have to think seriously about this because the teacher doesn't know very much. If students mention this to their parents, they can also consider this problem. And also, this problem will be talked about by many people; it will change into the good way of announcement of noticing about beaches pollution.

And in the newspaper, the government should put the advertisement that says that polluted beaches force us not to swim in beaches and oceans, protect our beaches and oceans, and keep clean beaches. There is a catchphrase of littering, which the EPA was quoted as saying (States News Service, 2005, par. 1), "When it rains, you don't go to the beach, your litter does." I think this phrase is great because this phrase indicate clearly that between littering and polluting there is a strong relationship and when we are going to throw away some trash in the street, we recall this phrase and then we will not throw it away.

I think that beaches pollution is such a difficult problem to solve. We need to spend much time and money to protect the beaches from polluting. Making the laws and overflow retention systems are the best way and the easiest way to clean the beaches. But we can't forget that there are important things that we need to remember. Change our mind not to litter and littering directly causes pollution.

Bibliography

Associated Press (2005, Jul. 14). Report: Hong Kong’s beaches littered by trash washed up from China. Associated Press. Retrieved November 30, 2005, from Lexis-Nexis.

Benanti, D. (2005, Sep. 8). Testing the quality of beaches; Politicians and health officials wrangle over criteria needed to measure bacteria for safe ocean swimming. Newsday, New York, N.Y. Retrieved October 24, 2005, from Lexis-Nexis.

Hendrick, D. (2005, Oct. 24). A hazard to the environment; Experts estimate that billions of gallons of raw sewage were dumped into the city’s waterways after storm. Newsday, New York, N.Y. Retrieved November 29, 2005, from Lexis-Nexis.

Kellogg, K. (2005, Nov. 16). Sewer system improvement outlined to overflows, state complaints. Buffalo News, Buffalo, N.Y. Retrieved November 30, 2005, from Lexis-Nexis.

Levine, A. (1982). Love canal: Science, politics, and people. City: Mass. Lexington Books.

States News Service (2005, Jul. 18). Federal and city officials pitch in to fight letter. Retrieved October 31, 2005, from Lexis-Nexis.

Monday, December 05, 2005

 
Between Japanese Americans and Japanese


According to the article (2005, Nov. 14), "40 prominent Japanese Americans and Japanese leaders gave birth to a plan to end their long separation.", there was a long-standing relationship between Japanese Americans and Japanese. But this relationship was broken by World War II, and they had to relocate to camps after Pearl Harbor. As time went on, younger Japanese Americans have become interested in Japanese popular culture, and this trend has opened the re-building of cultural ties. But the relationship can't recover overnight; it takes more time to reconcile. Japanese American leaders have been working to improve communication with Japanese leaders, such as former prime ministers and the head of Sony and Toyota. The visits had great effects on participants.

I didn't know that Japanese Americans and Japanese are trying to re-build the relationship between them. This action is good for Japanese Americans and also Japanese. We don't know very much about Japanese Americans, their history, and their suffering during World War II. I think Japanese Americans also don't know Japanese culture because of less information.

More and more this kind of action should begin and it will be able to re-build the relationship between Japanese and Japanese Americans. I wish Japanese Americans could find that Japanese culture has many interesting things.


Reference;

Burress, C. (2005, Nov. 14). Americans, Japanese reconnect; Program in place to restore ties lost in World War II. The San Francisco chronicle. Retrieved Novenber 16, 2005, from Lexis-Nexis.

Wednesday, November 16, 2005

 
Beaches pollution in New York (R.P.)


I was interested in New York area beaches because I didn't know that there are a lot of beaches in New York; my image of New York was only Manhattan. New York City has many beaches but also has problems, for example, littering garbage, cans, and human and animal feces on the streets, parks, and beaches. It makes the water have a high level of enterococcus, and it causes several illnesses for humans from swimming at the beaches; the most common illness is gastroenteritis, an irritation and inflammation of the digestive tract. But there is another opinion; according to Dina Acks Benanti (2005), the agency now states there is not a strong statistical relationship between the amount of fecal coliform and the likelihood of people getting sick. Whatever, polluting water causes bad effects, we can't swim in ocean, and we have to clean beaches. States News Service (par.3) said that, "More than a decade ago, EPA and New York City started a 'Clean Streets=Clean Beaches' It draws our attention to the connection between rain washing down litter which is on the streets and litter going to the beaches. According to States New Service (par.6), "We must all take responsibility for our actions and acknowledge that the candy wrapper carelessly discarded in the street quite often travels all the way to our shores and mars the beauty of our beaches and waterways." Most New Yorkers don't know of the link, so it is important to let people realize it in public education to make progress.

I am going to write three things about what we should do for polluted beaches in New York. First, we have to make laws that enforce not littering in streets, parks, and beaches and if we litter something, we need to pay a fine; it would make New York cleaner than now. Second, New York State government has to make a lot of tanks for excess water, however it costs much money. Finally, we need to notice about what is going on in New York. The government should put the advertisement of this problem in the newspaper and teachers ought to teach this situation in school. And we have to admit that this is a problem.

These articles help me to understand and have a lot of information of beaches pollution in New York. I have to search for more information about sewer pipes and sewage plants.

Reference:

Benanti, D. (2005, Sep. 8). Testing the quality of beaches; Politicians and health officials wrangle over criteria needed to measure bacteria for safe ocean swimming. Newsday. Retrieved October 24, 2005, from Lexis-Nexis.

States News Service (2005, Jul. 18). Federal and city officials pitch in to fight litter. Retrieved October 31, 2005, from Lexis-Nexis.

 
Stop littering (S/R#2)


Our litter is cleaned away by rainwater and in the end it will go to beaches, when it rains. There is tons of litter, whose were gathered to our streets, parks, and beaches. EPA and New York City began a campaign, which name is "Clean Street=Clean Beaches", that draws our attention to the connect between rain washing down litter which is on the streets and litter going to beaches. Commissioner Doherty is quoted as saying, "We must all take responsibility for our actions and acknowledge that the candy wrapper carelessly discarded on the street quite often travels all the way to our shores and mars the beauty of our beaches and waterways." Most New Yorkers don't know of the link, so it is important to let people realize it in public education to make progress.

I think that there are mainly two ways to solve this problem; the first way is to prevent littering on the streets and parks, and the second way is to clean up litter, which is on the streets parks and beaches, and in the harbor.

To clean up all the garbage is impossible, but we can clean up most of the garbage. Sweep up the streets, parks, storm drains, harbor, beaches, etc. There are many places to clean up and we also need many people to clean up; it will take a lot of money to clean up. Even if we can clean up all the litter, maybe, someone will throw garbage away on the streets.

To prevent littering is less expensive than to clean up. We need to intensify a sense of this problem. According to the article, knowing about the connection between rain washing down litter and litter going to beaches or harbor is important; however, we must know that littering is polluting our earth.

Both of these solutions take a lot of time and money, and then I think that we have to do both ways. As mentioned earlier, there is no meaning to cleaning up if we don't have the awareness that we must not litter and we will make the same mistake again and again.

There is nothing more precious than the earth, I think. So we have to prevent and stop polluting. To solve this problem is easier than to stop global warming and the other environmental problems. Just we change our thinking and stop littering.

Reference:

States News Service (2005, Jul. 18). Federal and city officials pitch in to fight litter. Retrieved October 31, 2005, from Lexis-Nexis.

Thursday, November 03, 2005

 
Polluted beaches(S/R#1)

According to this article, in this summer, a lot of beaches, in New York City, were closed because of a high level of bacteria such as enterococcus, which are generally found in human and animal feces. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is quoted as saying, " There is not a strong statistical relationship between the amount of fecal confirm and the likelihood of people getting sick, while enterococcus is a good predictor of illnesses in all water." Some organizations thought that we need a higher standard of testing the fecal coliform than the EPA standard. New York City made a three-tier system, which indicates water quality, and an overflow system that will manage the overflow by treatment plants.

We can't swim in the ocean, if we are prohibited from swimming there because of pollution with high level of fecal coliform bacteria. But standards for testing the fecal coliform are not in the same quality. There is a possibility we will have illness such as gastroenteritis and an irritation with swimming at beaches, which passed the testing but with low quality. It will make a bad image for people swimming in the ocean and going to the beaches. We need to protect ourselves from being sick and return the ocean to cleanliness.

To protect from getting sick, standards must require the same high quality of checking, which will prevent not only bacterial but also viral disease. It is too late to make some plans to protect those who suffer with illness, after the accident was happened.

I think solution of water pollution will takes a lot of time to recover the ocean to be clean. However, we need it to be clean even if it takes decades not to bring this problem to next generation.

Both protecting and solution actions for this issue will have good effect on New York City beaches and also the earth. Quick actions to cope with this problem will make of easier for us to solve it.

I heard that young people are weaker in preventing infectious disease than old people because the lifestyle becomes cleanliness than before, then people lose their resistance. It means we need to seek the best solution to polluted beaches with a high level of fecal coliform bacteria, or we must be strong against infectious disease.

Reference:
Benanti, D. (2005, Sep. 8). Testing the quality of beaches; Politicians and health officials wrangle over criteria needed to measure bacteria for safe ocean swimming. Newsday. Retrieved October 24, 2005, from Lexis-Nexis.

Tuesday, November 01, 2005

 
My hero Lance Armstrong

Lance Armstrong is one of the most famous and strongest professional road-racing cyclist. He won the Tour de France a record seven consecutive times (1999 to 2005). Tour de France is the hardest and most famous road race .

Lance Armstrong retired from Discovery Channel Pro Cycling Team, after the 2005 Tour de France. He won the Tour de France a record seven consecutive times-1999 to 2005. His sporting career began as a triathlete, at age of 17, he trained with the National Cycling Team. In 1992, he turned professional and won a lot of races. On October 2, 1996, he was attacked with testicular cancer which was spread to his lungs and brain, one of his doctor said later, his odds of survival was only one-three percent. However, after recovering from cancer, he trained so hard that he could successfully return to the cycling world. In the Tour de France, he became the champion seven times, and won 22 individual stages and 11 times trials. The Lance Armstrong Foundation made the Livestrong wristband, which was part of the Wear Yellow Live Strong educational program that supports cancer victims and survivors and raises awareness about cancer. Over 50 million Livestrong wristband have been sold until May 2005.

Tuesday, October 25, 2005

 
Living in the earth


In 1999 in New York, their weather made a new record, because they had 11 days that the temperature reached over 95 degrees Fahrenheit. And it caused a blackout in upper Manhattan. These issues relate to global warming that was brought about by Carbon dioxide produced by the burning of fossil fuels and the cutting of trees. It makes the earth and also New York hotter than in past years. There have some other problems such as asthma from urban smog and infectious diseases carried by mosquitoes. Not only on land but also in sea level, the author had bad anticipations for example, storm floods, and eroding the beaches.

Now, we have to solve and prevent these problems, such as smog and storm floods. I think that to prevent these issues are so important matter to the earth.

To solve these problems, first, we who live on the earth have to know what is going on with the earth, and second, each of us must face these problems seriously. And do the actions which we can do easily in normal life, if they are tiny things to affect to global warming. If there are some people don't consider this seriously, it doesn't go well and the situation will be worse.

But it might be impossible to do like this. Every person in the earth can't think about global warming. In Africa, there are a lot of people who survive by living from day to day, and they can't consider about global warming. Global warming was mostly caused by developed countries, so we, who live in developed countries have to worry about global environmental problems seriously.

We can do a lot of things to prevent the temperature from continuing to increase. When we go to a nearby place, we must not use our own cars and use the public transfers or ride a bicycle. Each person has to do the actions; this will make a small movement, and it will become a bigger and bigger movement.

I think these problems are so difficult to solve and maybe they are impossible to solve perfectly. But we have to do some actions, if we don't do any actions the earth will be destroyed by human being.



Reference:

Whyte, A. (1999, Aug. 17). Hot nights in the city; New York City's environmental future. Retrieved October 24, 2005, from; http://www.wsws.org/articles/1999/aug1999/nyc-a17.shtml

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